Tarihin Mahatma Gandhi Wanda Ya Sanarwar Indiya Yanci Daga Hannun Turawa.

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An haifi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) a ranar 2 ga watan Oktoba, 1869 a Porbander Indiya. Da yawa daga cikin danginsa sun yi aiki da gwamnatin kasar. Lokacin da Gandhi yake da shekaru 18, ya je karatun lauya a Ingila. Bayan ya zama lauya, ya je yankin Afirka ta Kudu da Burtaniya ta yi wa mulkin mallaka inda ya fuskanci adawa da dokokin da suka ce bakar fata ba su da yanci ko kaɗan sai fararen fata.

A cikin 1897, wasu gungun mutane sun kai wa Gandhi hari a tashar jiragen ruwa na Durban a Afirka ta Kudu lokacin da zai je aiki. Yaje Afirka ta Kudu ne saboda ya kasa samun aiki a Indiya.

Lokacin da ya je Afirka ta Kudu, Gandhi shi ma an kore shi daga cikin jirgin kasa saboda launin fatarsa. Daga nan sai Gandhi ya fara nuna adawa da wariya. Ya yanke shawarar zama dan gwagwarmayar siyasa, wanda zai taimaka wajen canza waɗannan dokoki na rashin adalci. Ya yi yunkuri mai karfi, wanda babu tashin hankali a cikin sa. A lokacin rayuwar Gandhi, Indiya ta kasance a cikin mulkin mallaka na Daular Biritaniya. Ya kasance babban jagora a wannan lokacin kuma tunaninsa ya taimaka wajen samar da ‘yancin kai na Indiya.

Gandhi ya kasance mai cin ganyayyaki a matsayin Abinci a kusan duk rayuwarsa, domin ya yi imani da rashin tashin hankali.

A matsayinsa na mai fafutuka

A ranar 9 ga Janairun 1915 lokacin da Gandhi ya koma Indiya, ya yanke shawarar sake jagorantar wata zanga-zangar adawa da wata doka da ake kira Dokar Rowlatt. Amma sai zanga-zangar ta rikide zuwa tashin hankali inda mutane suka fara kashe masu zanga-zangar.

Ranar 12 ga Maris 1930 Gandhi ya jagoranci zanga-zangar da akewa lakabi da (Salt March)

Lokacin da ya koma Indiya, ya taimaka wajen samar da ’yancin kai na Indiya daga mulkin mallaka na Birtaniyya, inda ya zaburar da sauran al’ummar Indiya, su yi aikin samar da ’yancin kansu, da wargaza daular Burtaniya, tare da maye gurbinta da Commonwealth.

Mutanen da ke da addinai daban-daban da kabilu daban-daban su na zaune a Indiya. Mutane da yawa sun yi tunanin cewa ya kamata a raba kasar zuwa kasashe daban-daban. Mutane da yawa sun yi tunanin cewa Hindu da Musulmai su sami ƙasashen su daban. Gandhi dan Hindu ne, amma yana son yaga addinai da yawa da suka hada da Musulunci, Yahudanci, da Kiristanci, da kowane addini su sami ‘yancinsu iri ɗaya, kuma za su iya zama tare cikin lumana a cikin ƙasa ɗaya.

A 1938, Gandhi ya yi murabus daga kasancewa dan Majalisa. Ya ce ba zai iya yin aiki ta hanyar Majalisa ba don hada kan rarrabuwar kawuna da addini. Ya kuma ji cewa ba shi da wani abin da zai iya bayarwa a harkar siyasa.

A ranar 15 ga Agustan 1947, Daular Indiya ta Burtaniya ta raba Indiya da Pakistan suka zama kashe daban-daban. Gandhi ya so a basu ‘yancin kai a kasa daya a dunkule. Bai so a rabasu zuwa kasashe biyu daban-daban ba. Maimakon yayi munar samun samun ‘yancin kai, sai ya yi kuka saboda raba kasashen gida biyu.

Mutuwa

A ranar 30 ga Janairu, 1948, wani dan kishin Addinin hindu, Brahman Nathuram Godse ya harbe Ghandi har lahira, saboda Gandhi yana mutunta Musulmi sosai. Jami’an Indiya sun yi wa Godse shari’a kuma suka yanke masa hukuncin kisa, su ka kashe shi.

Ƙarin Bayani.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Iyayyen sa sunyi masa aure ya na da shekaru 13 tare da Kasturba Makanji wanda suka haifi yara hudu tare.

Ya karanta aikin lauya a London tsakanin shekarar 1888 zuwa 1891, kana yayi aikin lauya a Afrika ta kudu tsakanin shekarar 1893 zuwa 1915.

A shekarar 1922 a matsayinsa na jigo a jam’iyyar NCP yayi kiran bijirewa turawan Birtaniya dake mulkin Indiya, abinda ya sa aka kama shi aka daure shekaru biyu.

A shekarar 1930 ya jagoranci wata zanga zangar da aka yiwa lakabi da ‘Salt March’ daga Ahmedabad abinda ya sa aka sake kama shi aka tsare.

A shekarar 1942 ya kira yajin aikin gama gari dan tilastawa turawan Birtaniya ficewa daga Indiya abinda ya sa aka kama shi aka tsare har zuwa shekarar 1944.

Indiya ta samu yanci a shekarar 1947, yayin da aka yiwa Mahatma Ghandi kisan gilla ranar 30 ga watan Janairu shekarar 1948, kuma mutane sama da miliyan biyu ne suka halarci jana’izar sa.

Mutumin da ya kashe shi mabiyin Hindu ne mai tsattsauran Ra’ayin Addinin Hindu, wanda ya so Indiya ta zama kasar Hindu kuma ya ki amincewa da ra’ayin Gandhi na Indiya ta zama kasa mai bin tsarin dimokuradiyya mai zaman kanta, a Indiya kusan kashi 80% cikin 100 na yawan jama’ar ta mabiya Addinin Hindu ne, amma kuma tana daya daga cikin manyan kasashen da suke da al’ummar musulmi a duniya, wanda ke da kusan kashi 14% na mutanen kasar, ko kuma kusan mutane miliyan 180.

Tarihin Da Al’adu

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