Tarihin Samuwar Rubutattun Waƙoƙin Hausa

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Waƙa aba ce da ake rubutawa domin isar da wani saƙo. Dangane da rubutattun waƙoƙin Hausa kuwa, abubuwa ne da aka daɗe ana gudanar da su, domin bincike ya nuna cewa a ƙarni na 17 aka fara rubuta waƙa da Hausa, duk da cewa mafi yawan waƙoƙi da aka yi a wannan lokaci cikin harshen Larabci aka rubuta su.

A wannan ƙarni ne aka sami malamai irin su Wali ɗanmarina da Wali ɗanmasani, inda suka yi rubutu cikin Larabci da Hausa. Misalan ayyukan Wali ɗanmarina sun haɗa da Diliyya da Nuniyya da Waƙar Sharrin Taba. Haka shi ma Wali ɗanmasani ya rubuta Nafhatul Ambariyya da sharhin Ishriniyar Al-Fazazi da sauransu.

Haka dai rubutattun waƙoƙi suka riƙa samun ci gaba a ƙarni na 18, suka kuma bunƙasa a ƙarni na 19 da kuma 20, inda malamai suka dukufa wajen rubuce-rubucen waƙoƙin addini a kan fannoni daban-daban domin ilimantar da alumma kan yadda za su gudanar da ayyukan addininsu.

A ƙarni na 19 ilimi ya ƙara bunƙasa an kuma sami ƙarin malamai masu rubuta waƙoƙi domin isar da saƙonsu na jaddada addinin Musulunci, domin waƙa ta fi saurin yaɗuwa da haddacewa wajen isar da saƙon addini, don haka malamai da almajirai suka zabe ta a matsayin hanyar isar da saƙonnin addini.

A ƙarni na 19 an rubuta waƙoƙi masu yawa waɗanda ake kira da waƙoƙin jihadi. Duk waƙoƙin da aka rubuta a wannan lokacin suna magana ne a kan addinin Musulunci, saboda Musulunci a wannan zamani shi ya fi komai ƙarfi da tasiri, lokaci ne na jaddada shi da neman iliminsa, don haka duk wata waƙar da ba ta addini ba a sunanta hululu, wato waƙa marar amfani. (Auta, 2004:11).

Babban jigon waƙoƙin ƙarni na 19 shi ne addini, misalan waƙoƙin da aka rubuta a wannan ƙarni sun haɗa da Tabban Haƙiƙa da Gargaɗi da Begen Annabi ta Shehu Usmanu ɗanfodiyo da Gargaɗi ga Masu Shan Azumi ta Nana Asmau da Tsarin Mulkin Musulunci ta Abdullahi ɗanfodiyo da sauransu.

Haka alamarin ma yake a ƙarni na 20, inda aka samu waƙoƙi masu yawa, sai dai a wannan lokaci jigogin waƙoƙin ya canza domin duk da cewa an ci gaba da rubutu a kan jigon addini, to amma marubuta sun yi rubuce-rubuce a sauran fannoni na rayuwa da suka sha bamban da na addini, sakamakon zuwan Turawa, inda aka sami sababbin kayayyakin da a da babu su. Waƙoƙin ƙarni na 20 kusan sun tabo kowanne bangare na rayuwa, misali:

  • Taaziyya – Waƙar Taaziyyar Janar Murtala ta M. B. Umar;
  • Gargaɗi – Waƙoƙin Gargaɗi na Adamu Jingau;
  • Alada – Sutura Ita Ce Mutum, Rabiu Ahmed;
  • Sanaa – Sanaa Tushen Arziki, Rabiu ɗanbaba;
  • Shaawa – Waƙar Damina, Naibi S. Wali;
  • Soyayya – Yar Budurwa Sonki Nake Wada Hamza;
  • Tafiye-tafiye – Babban Gari Legas, Aƙilu Aliyu;
  • Siyasa – Allah Ya Tsine barawon Akwati, Isa Bunguɗu;
  • Addini – Begen Annabi , K. I. Magoga, (Auta 2004).

Dalilan da suka sa waƙoƙin suka yawaita a ƙarni na 20, sun haɗa da zuwan Turawa da zaunawar mulkin mallaka da samuwar boko da yan boko da neman yanci da shigowar siyasa da samun mulkin kai. Ga yawaitar maɗabaa da takardu da gudunmawar jaridu da kafa ƙungiyoyin marubuta waƙoƙi da nazarinsu da gidajen rediyo da talabijin da makarantun Islamiyya da sauransu.

Marubuci:

Isa Yusuf Chamo


Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya,
Jamiar Bayero, Kano.

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