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TARIHIN AHMADU BELLO (sardaunan sokoto)

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Sir Ahmadu Bello Sardaunan Sokoto basarake ne, malamin makaranta, kuma ɗan siyasa, mai kishin ƙasa da jama’arsa. Ya rayu a ƙarƙashin mulkin mallakar Turawa har zuwa farkon samun mulkin kai. A saboda haka akwai ɗimbin darrusa da za a iya koya daga rayuwarsa.

Sir Ahmadu Bello mutum ne mai sauƙin kai kuma mai son haɗin kan jama’a tare da son ganin ci gaban jama’a da ma ƙasa baki ɗaya. Maganganusa cike su ke da hikimomi. Dubi amsar da ya baiwa Dr. Azikiwe a lokacin da suka haɗu, Azikiwe ya ce da shi, “Ahmadu mu manta da bambance-bambancen da ke tsakaninmu mu haɗa kai…”, sai Sardauna ya bashi amsa da cewa: “A’a, mu dai fahimci bambance-bambancen da ke tsakaninmu. Ni musulmi ne ɗan’arewa, kai kuma kirista ne ɗan’yammaci. Idan muka fahimci bambance-bambancen da ke tsakaninmu za mu iya kawo haɗin kai a ƙasarmu”. Duba (Paden, 1986).

  Haihuwarsa

Sir Ahmadu Bello ya ce, “Kusan tazarar mil 20 daga arewacin Sokoto daura da kogi, akwai wani gari Raɓah. A nan aka haife ni a shekarar 1910” (Ahmadu, 1961).

Salsalarsa

Sir Ahmadu Bello Sardaunan Sokoto ɗan ƙabilar Fulani ne, kuma shi jika ne a wajen Shehu Mujadaddadi. Sunan mahaifinsa Ibrahim Bello. Da kansa ya ce, “Mahaifina ɗan Abubakar ne, da aka fi sani da Atiku na Raɓah, wanda shi ne sarkin Musulmi na bakwai. Ya yi mulkinsa na tsawon shekaru huɗu (4) daga 1873. Mahaifinsa kuma shi ne Sultan Bello ɗan Shehu Usman Ɗanfodiye Mujadaddadi. Bello, wanda ya gaji jagoranci Musulunci a bayan rasuwar mahaifinsa kakan-kakana ne”. (Ahmadu, 1961).

Saboda haka kenan, Sir Ahmadu Bello ɗan Ibrahim ne, shi kuma Ibrahim ɗan Abubakar Atiku na Raɓah, shi kuma ɗan Sultan Bello shi kuma ɗan Mujadaddadi Shehu Usman. Dan haka tsakaninsa da Shehu mujadaddadi rawani ko hula uku ce kacal. Wato mutane uku ne a tsakaninsa da Shehu mujadaddadi.

Ibrahim Bello wanda shi ne mahaifin Sir Ahmadu Bello ya kasance mutum ne jarumi wanda saboda jarumtakarsa wani shahararren mawaƙi na lokacinsa mai suna Zamnu ya yi masa kirari da Mai ƙafon karo a bayan da ya gwabza da Turawan mulkin mallaka iya ƙarfinsa.
Sunan mahaifiyar Sir Ahmadu Bello Maimunatu wanda aka fi sani da Mamu (Paden, 1986).

Karatu

An saka Sir Ahmadu Bello a makaranta tun yana ɗan shekara biyar, inda aka damƙa shi a hannun limamin Raɓah Liman Abubakar wanda ya karantar da shi karatun alƙur’ani da wasu littattafai.
Tun kafin zuwan Sir Ahmadu Bello hannun liman Abubakar ya iya karanta Fatiha da wasu gajerun Surori. Da zuwansa hannun liman sai aka ɗora inda aka tabbatar ya iya karanta gajerun surori tun da Fatiha zuwa Alamtarakaifa kamar yadda aka saba a makarantun Allo. Sir Ahmadu Bello ya sauke Alƙur’ani yana da shekaru goma sha biyu a duniya wato a tsawon shekaru bakwai kenan.
Bayan kammala saukar
Alƙur’ani da ya yi, Sir Ahmadu Bello ya ɗora da karatun Littattafai inda ya samu nasarar kammala karatun littattafan Ahlari, Ishimawi da Risala a cikin shekaru biyu a wannan lokacin Sir Ahmadu yana da shekaru 14 kenan a duniya.
A shekarar 1924, Sir Ahmadu ya samu shiga makarantar boko a garin Sokoto. Wato Sokoto Province School wacce ita ce ɗaya tilo makarantar boko a duk faɗin lardin. Bayan kammala karatunsa a Sokoto ya samu nasarar shiga Makarantar Horas da Malamai ta Katsina . Wato Katsina Teachers Training College, Katsina.

Gagayyar Aiki

  1. Bayan kammala karatunsa a Katsina, Sir Ahmadu Bello ya zama malamin makaranta a Sokoto Middle School wacce ita ce tsohuwar makarantarsa ta farko. Ya yi aiki a wannan makaranta daga shekarar 1931 zuwa 1934. Ayyukansa a wannan makaranta su ne karantar da English, Geometry da kuma Arabic inda daga baya ya zama mai kula da harkokin wasanni na makarantar.
    Zamansa a wannan makaranta ya bashi cikakkiyar damar saka ido kan yadda ake gudanar da harkokin mulki a Sokoto, ta hanyar halatar zaman da Sarkin Musulmi ke yi a fadarsa dan gudanar da mulki, sannan kuma a lokaci guda shi ya zama kamar mai sadar da tsakanin masarauta da kuma Turawan mulkin mallaka kasancewarsa wanda ya ke jin yarensu.
  2. A shekarar 1934 zuwa 1948, Sir Ahmadu Bello ya zamo hakimin Raɓah bayan naɗa shi da sarkin musulmi na wancan lokacin ya yi, kamar yadda ya rubuta da hannunsa a cikin littafinsa, “Babban sauyi ya zo a 1934, lokacin da Sultan ya naɗa ni hakimin Raɓah dan na gaji ɗan’uwana bayan rasuwarsa. Ina da shekaru 24 na zamo hakimi mafi ƙanƙanta da aka naɗa”. (Ahmadu, 1961).
  3. Iya tsawon mulkinsa a matsayin hakimi, Sir Ahmadu Bello ya bada gagarumar gudunmawa wajen ci gaban yankinsa wanda ke da faɗin murabba’in mil ɗari uku (300m2). Zamowarsa sarkin Raɓah ya bashi damammaki guda biyu; Turawa suna yi masa kallon mai mulki inda kuma ta nata ɓangaren masarauta tana kallonsa a matsayin basarake.
    Wasu daga cikin garuruwan yankinsa suna fama da matsananciyar wahalar ruwa a lokacin rani musamman garuruwan da suka yi nisa da kogi. Sir Ahmadu Bello ya yi iya bakin ƙoƙarinsa na ganin an haƙa musu rijiyoyi duk da cewa a wancan lokacin babu injinan haƙa rijiya.
    Sir Ahmadu ya haɓɓaka harkar noman rani ta yadda ya rage raɗaɗin talauci da yawan fita cirani da jama’ar yankin ke yi. A wannan fannin Sir Ahmadu ya kafa noman rogo, shinkafa, dankali, da kuma alkama duk da rani a faɗin yankin. Babbar dabarar da ya yi amfani da ita wajen gabatar da wannan noma ita ce ya tara jama’a da sunan aikin gayya suka je suka share katafaren fili suka dasa rogo, daga baya suka nome, bayan ta girma ya kira su suka cire sannan ya ce kowa ya tafi da ita gida ya yi amfani da ita wanda tun daga sannan jama’a suka riƙa shuka ta da kansu a gonakinsu.
    Sir Ahmadu Bello cikin dabarasa ya hana matasa zaman kashe wando da tsegumi a bakin kasuwa. Kasantuwar sa matashi a wannan lokacin, sai ya riƙa shiga cikin matasa yana ɗibarsu suna zuwa wasannin motsa jiki kamar irin su kokawa, langa da sauransu.
    Sir Ahmadu ya yaƙi jahilci a yankinsa inda har ta kai shiga samun nasarar gina elimentary school a garin Raɓah. Tun da farko Sir Ahmadu Bello ya kafa bukka ne a garin Raɓah inda ya riƙa tara yara yana koya musu karatu da kansa, daga baya kuma suma suke zuwa suna koyar da na ƙasa da su.
    Daga cikin ɗimbin ayyukan raya ƙasa da Sir Ahmadu Bello ya gudanar a matsayinsa na hakimi akwai gina ofishin hakimi a garin Raɓah, wanda ya bashi damar taskace ire-iren bayanan shari’a dana ayyuka a waje guda. Sannan kuma ya gina hanyoyin mota. D.s.
  4. A 1938 Sir Ahmadu Bello ya zamo Sardaunan Sokoto. Wannan ya biyo bayan rashin samun nasarar zamowa sarkin musulmi da ya yi bayan rasuwar sarkin. Abokin takararsa Sir Siddiƙ Abubakar III (Abubakar na uku); wato sabon sarkin Musulmi, shi ya naɗa shi a matsayin wakili na musamman mai kula da lardin Gusau, wanda ya ke kulawa da sha’anin hakimai goma sha huɗu (14). Wannan naɗin nasa tare yake da naɗa shi a matsayin Sardaunan Sokoto.
    Tashinsa daga Raɓah zuwa Gusau kamar wani gudun hijira ne saboda waccar takara da ya yi da sabon Sarkin Musulmi dan gudun abubuwan da ka-je-su-zo. Wannan zama da ya yi a Gusau ya bashi cikakkiyar damar saduwa da mutane daga sassan arewacin
    Najeriya wanda wannan ce ta zama tubulin gini siyasarsa. Ya samu wannan dama ce saboda hanyar jigin ƙasa da yake a Gusau wacce ta zama cibiya tattara kayan amfani gona daga sassan Arewa.
  5. A shekarar 1944, Sir Ahmadu Bello ya koma Sokoto bayan naɗa shi da Sarkin Musulmi ya yi a matsayin Babban Kansila na Sokoto Local Government kamar yadda ya zo a (Odidi da Adamu). Sai dai (ChatAfrik Network, 2012; Politicoscope, 2010; Wikipedia, 2016) sun haɗu a kan cewa Sir Ahmadu Bello ya koma Sokoto a shekarar 1944 a matsayin babban magatakardar majalisar masarauta (Chief Secretary of the State Native Administration).
  6. A Shekarar 1948, Sir Ahmadu Bello ya samu zuwa ƙasar Ingila domin yin karatu kan harkokin mulki.
  7. A 1949 Mamba a majalisar dokoki ta Arewacin Najeriya mai wakiltar lardin Sokoto. Ya bada gagarumar gudunmawa wajen mayar da Arewa abu guda, yanda ya riƙa tuntuɓar sauran wakilan lardunan Kano da Borno. A wannan majalisa ya riƙe muƙamai da dama. Daga ciki akwai: Ministan ayyuka, ministan ƙanan hukumomi, mamba na hukumar gandun daji, da sauran manyan muƙamai da ya riƙe.
  8. 1953 ya zamo ɗaya daga cikin mutane uku da aka zaɓa su zama wakilan Arewa a taron sabunta tsarin mulkin Najeriya.
  9. Shi ya zama Firimiyan Arewa na farko a zaɓen da aka gudanar a shekarar 1954 wanda shi ne muƙamin da ya ke a kai harƙarshen rayuwarsa.
    Sir Ahmadu Bello Sardauna Tare da Dr. Nmandi Azikwe
    Addininsa
    Sir Ahmadu Bello ya zamo mai matuƙar riƙo da addinisa da al’adarsa. A duk gurin da Ahmadu Bello ya ke kuma duk irin abin da ya ke yi, idan lokacin sallah ya yi yakan bar wannan aiki ya aiwatar da ibadarsa. Shi ne wanda ya samar da taken Arewacin Najeriya na
    Work and Worship, ma’ana “A yi aiki a yi bauta”.
    Sannan bai zamo mai bambantawa tsakanin Musulmi da wanda ba Musulmi ba. An ruwaito shi yana cewa: “A nan arewacin Najeriya muna da mabambantan ƙabilu, yaruka da addinai waɗanda muka haɗu a tarihi guda, buƙata guda, da kuma shawara iri ɗaya. Abubuwan da suka haɗa mu sun fi waɗanda suka raba mu. Har kullum ina tunatar da mutanenmu cewa mu fa abu guda ne dan haka mu koyi haƙuri da addinan juna. Ba mu da niyyar fifita wani addini a sama da wani. Babban burinmu shi ne a kiyaye doka-da-oda, burinmu kuma shi ne kowa ya cikakken ‘yancin gudanar da addininsa bisa karantarwar addinin nasa…”. (ChatAfrik Network, 2012).

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