TAKAITACCEN TARIHIN KALIFANCIN MUHAMMADU BELLO IBN FODIO

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Mujaddadi Dan Fodio

Matar Usman Bin Fodio ta hudu mai suna Hauwa ko Inna Garka,  itace ta haifi  Muhammad Bello Bin Fodio.
An haifi Muhammad Bello Bin Fodio a shekara ta 1781, ya shiga cikin karatun da Yan Uwansa sukeyi wanda mahaifinsu ke jagoranta a Degel.  A shekara ta 1809 Muhammad Bello shine ya jagoranci kafa Sokoto wacce daga bisani tazama garin da maihaifinsa Usmanu bin Fodio ya karbi Mulkin wurin ya kuma zama nasararsa ga kasar Hausa a Yankin Fulani A shekara ta 1804 zuwa 1810.
Yawancin yan Uwansa sun bada gudun mawa a harkar Ilmin Addinin Musulunci, kamar Nana Asma’u bin Fodio marubuciya kuma Malama da kuma Abu Bakr Atiku wanda yazama magajinsa,  kuma shi Muhammad Bello yasamu yarda da amincewa a wurin mahaifinsa Usman Bin Fodio.
Biyo Bayan yakin Fulani Kalifanci na Sokoto yana daya Daga cikin Manyan Jahohi a Africa, Sannan da mafiya yawan Hausa da Kuma Fulani,  Usman Bin Fodio yayi kokarin Kawar da tsarin Hausa ciki harda Sarautar Gargajiya, Ilimi da kuma Yare.
Usman yayi ritaya daga gobnatin sokoto a shekara ta 1815, kuma ya nada Muhammad Bello a wata masarautar Wurno da ke kusa da Sokoto
Bayan mutuwar Dan-Fodio, an yi watsi da Khalifanci lokacin da magoya bayan Bello suka kewaye  ƙofar Sokoto, suka hana wasu masu fada aji a ofishin Caliph (ciki har da kawun Bello Abdullahi Ibn Fodio) daga shiga cikin birnin. Ansamu rarabuwar kawuna a masarautar inda aksamu wasu bangarori masu Zaman kansu guda Hudu wanda bangaren da kawun Bello ke mulki Wato Abdullahi Ibn Fodiyo aksani kuma shi ya amince da Mulkin Bello.
Sarkin Musulmi Bello ya fuskanci kalubalen da shugabanci da masu adawa da Fulani da Hausa suka fuskanta. Ya bambanta da ubansa, gwamnatinsa ta fi yarda da tsarin Hausa wanda ya wanzu kafin Khalifanci.
Karanta:
Saboda yawan Fulani, wadanda suka kasance a wirin tun   kafin Kalifanci wannan lokaci, Bello ya ƙarfafa daidaituwa ta hanyar zama tare da su dakuma Gina musu makarantu, masallatai, gadoji, da sauran gine-ginen.
 Kodayake wannan tafiya ta Kalifanci Muhammad bello ansamu rashin yaddar wasu shugabanni kamar su  ‘Abd al-Salam da Dan Tunku, sun ci gaba da haifar da tirjiya ga mulkinsa. Dan Tunku ya kasance babban mai nuna rashin  goyan baya ga Kalifanci Muhammad Bello kuma shine shugaba a masarautar Kazaure.
Ko da yake Dan Tunku ya yi yaƙi a bangaren mahaifinsa a lokacin yakin Fulani, lokacin da Bello ya kira Ibrahim Dado Sarkin Kano a 1819, Dan Tunku ya shirya ‘yan adawa a juyin juya hali. Bello ya taimaki Ibrahim Dado wajen kawar da dan Tunku da kuma gina manyan gine-gine don kariya ga mahara a cikin yankin inda Dan Tunku ya karbi ikonsa.
Bayan kammala Kawar da  wasu ‘yan adawa na farko, Sultan ya mayar da hankali ga inganta mulkinsa a fadin daular tare da ingantaccen tsarin, daidaitawa, da tsarin yin adalci. Muhammad bello Ya kara fadada ilimi ga maza da mata. ‘Yar’uwarsa, Nana Asma’u, ta zama muhimmin ɓangare na fadada ilimi ga mata, ta zama malama mai mahimmanci da haɗin kai ga matan karkara don karfafa ilimi.
A 1836, Masarautar Gobir ta tayar da kayar baya ga mulkin Sokoto. Sultan Muhammed Bello ya tara mayakansa kuma ya ragargaza tawagar masu tawayen a ranar 9 ga watan Maris shekara ta 1836 a yakin Gawakuke.
Yayin da yake mulki, ya cigaba  da yin manyan ayyukan ilimin boko,  ya kuma fi bada karfi a fanin ilimin tarihin da ilimin waka. An yi la’akari da Mauriyar Dauuri (The Wages of the Fortunate) a matsayin tarihin yakin Fulani da daular mahaifinsa.  Ya rubuta daruruwan litatafai akan tarihi, nazarin Islama, da kuma waƙoƙi a lokacin rayuwar mulkinsa.
Ya mutu yana  da shekaru 58, a Oktoba 25, 1837 a Wurno  kuma ɗan’uwansa Abu Bakr Atiku ya yi nasara zama a matsayin Sultan.
Alhamdulillah idan anga kuskure asanar damu ta Hhausapeoples@gmail.com
Tura Aiyukan Mu Zuwa daya daga cikin social media dake 

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