SIGOGIN WAQOQIN SHANTU DA TASIRINSU A RAYUWAR HAUSAWA

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Tijjani Shehu Almajir Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya,Jamiar Bayero, Kano.

1.0 GABATARWA

Waqoqin Shantu babban rukuni ne na adabin baka na Hausa, suna daga cikin nauoin waqoqin baka wadanda suka hada da hanyoyin kade-kade da bushe-bushe da waqe-waqen Hausawa.

Kidan shantu dadadden alamari ne a wajen Hausawa kasancewar suna aiwatar da abin su ne tun kafin haduwarsu da sauran alummu. Hausawa a da can suna aiwatar da su ne da ka su isar da saqonninsu da ka, sannan su adana su da ka. Amma a halin yau, ana samun yan canje-canje a cikin tsari da zubi na waqoqin shantu saboda cudanya da baqin alummu.

2.0 MAANAR WAQA

Umar (1980:3) ya bayyana waqa da cewa, “waqa tana zuwa ne a sigar gunduwoyin zantuka wadanda ake kira baitoci ko diyoyi kana ake rerawa da wani irin sautin murya na musamman.


Gusau (2003: xiii) ya nuna, waqar baka wani zance ne shiryayye cikin hikima da azanci da yake zuwa gaba-gaba bisa qaidojin tsari da daidaitawa a rere cikin sautin murya da amsa amon kari da kida da amshi’.


Dangane da abin da ya gabata ana iya cewa, waqar baka magana ce mai ayyananniyar manufa da ake rerawa bisa daidaitaccen tsari. Akwai wasu sigogi muhimmai da za a iya amfani da su wajen fito da maanar waqar baka, sun hada da:

  • rerawa
  • hawa da saukar murya
  • daidaita sautin murya (amsa amon kari)
  • azanci
  • naqaltar harshe
  • hikimar harshe
  • hikima da fasaha
  • kida
  • karbi ko amshi
  • gada da tafi
  • zabiyanci
  • saqo

(Gusau, 1988)

Waqa ba ta zuwa a shimfide ko kuma ta zo gaba daya, tana zuwa ne gutsure-gutsure tare da maimaita gindinta saboda daidaitawar da ake yi wa layukan waqa. Kusan kowane gutsure kammalalle ne ga kansa. Sai dai wani lokaci maanar takan cika ta tsallaka zuwa ga gutsuren da ke biye. Gutsuren nan shi ne jagoran waqa yake fara furtawa kafin yan amshi su karba (Gusau, 1988 ).

2.1 ASALIN WAQAR BAKA

Waqa a Bahaushiyar alada aba ce da ta faro tun kafuwar alumma. Kowa kintaci fadi yake yi dangane da asalin waqar baka, amma akwai wasu raayoyi da masana suka bayar dangane da samuwar waqar baka.
Yahaya da Wasu (1992:21) sun ce an bi raayoyin jamaa game da asalin wanzuwar waqoqin baka aka tace su zuwa gidaje kamar haka:

  • Kashi na farko suna ganin waqa ta samu ne daga wani mutum wai shi Sasana mutumin qasar Hurasan wanda aka ce shi ne ya fara roqon baka, wanda ya sa ake ce masa shugaban masu roqon duniya. Wai ita kanta kalmar Sasana tana nufin maroqi da harshen Hurasanci. A wani qaulin kuma an ce shi ne Hassanu dan Thabitu, mawaqin jahiliyyar Larabawa, wanda daga baya ya musulunta bayan bayyanar Annabi Sallahu Alaihi Wasallam. To wai jikokin Sasana ne suka kawo waqa.
  • Qauli na biyu kuwa cewa aka yi waqa ta samu ne daga hasken da aka samu na tsarin tsofaffin daulolin Afirka ta yamma, wato Gana da Mali da Songhay. Dalili kuwa shi ne ganin yadda qasar Hausa ta samu cudanya da sarakunan qasashen, musamman lokacin sarki Asiya Muhammad Taure (1493 1508) na Songhay da kuma ganin yawancin kayan kidan wadannan daulolin sun yi kama da na qasar Hausa.
  • Raayi na uku kuma, cewa aka yi waqa ta samu ne dangane da kiraye-kirayen da ake yi wa dodanni da iskoki a lokacin farauta da kuma bayan gano na noma da kuma na yaqe-yaqe da suka wanzu tsakanin qabilun Hausawa. Domin haka ake ganin wannan qaulin shi ne mafi inganci, kuma shi ne mashahuri a cikin dukkan sauran hasashen. Don haka waqa ta samu ne daga kiraye-kiraye ta hanyar farauta, sannan ta dada kyautatuwa daga kirarin noma ta hanyar yaqe-yaqe.

2.2 Muhimmancin Waqa

Umar, M.B. (1987:5) ya nuna cewa Adabi, musamman na baka wanda ya hada har da waqa, yana da babbar hikimar iya zama taska maadanar dabiu da aladun alumma, yadda ba za su balbalce ba. Wani muhimmancin shi ne bai wa jamaa nishadi da annashuwa.

Kafin Hausa (2002:241) ya nuna cewa muhimmancin waqoqi shi ne, suna cike da hikimomi da fasaha da nuna zalaqa irin ta alummar Hausawa. Harwayau, suna dauke da salo iri-iri na sarrafa harshe kamar su kirari da Karin magana da qarangiya da sauran abubuwa masu nuna gwanintar harshe.


Hakazalika, Galadanci da wasu (1993) sun nuna muhimmancin waqa yana da yawan gaske, wadanda suka hada da:

  • Suna taimakawa wajen qara fahimtar harshen Hausa.
  • Suna ba da kyawawan misalai na kwaikwayo ta hanyar mutanen kirki.
  • Suna taimakawa wajen yin aiki ba gajiyawa ko qosawa.
  • Waqoqi sukan zama taskar adana tarihi da kuma aladun gargajiya na Hausa.
  • Suna qara nishadi da hana yara yin yawon banza.
  • Waqoqi wani rumbu ne na ajiyar kalmomin Hausa.


Don haka, daga cikin muhimmancin waqa, akwai ratsa jiki da shiga zuci, akwai nishadantarwa idan fuskar nishadi ne, ko kuma saurin tunzurawa ko kwantar da hankali fiye da maganar yau da kullum. Ana wayar da kan jamaa, a ilimantar da su cikin sauqi da waqa. Sannan hanya ce ta zaburar da mawaqi da wanda aka yi wa waqar. Ta hanyar waqa kuma ana iya gane halin mawaqi, idan shi dattijo ne, ko mai aikin quruciya, ko shi mai tarbiyya ne ko marar tarbiyya.

3.0 WAQOQIN SHANTU

Waqoqin Shantu suna qarqashin rukunin waqe-waqen da yanmata suke yi. A duk lokacin da suke kadawa za ka ji suna waqa tana yin daidai da sautin kidan shantun. Kidan shantu kida ne na sa kai, kamar sauran kade-kaden da mata suke gudanarwa. Ta haka mata suke aiwatar da kidan shantu bisa shaawa.

3.1 MAANAR SHANTU

Bergery (1933:928) ya ce, Shantu wani dogon duma ne siriri wanda mata suke amfani da shi a matsayin abin kida.

Abraham (1976:801) ya bayyana shantu a matsayin dogon duma siriri wanda mata da fulani suke amfani da shi.

Haka kuma, Brob da wani (1996:187) sun bayyana shantu da wani dogon duma ne mai ado da qofa a kowane bangare wanda mata suke kadawa a cinya.

A taqaice, ana iya cewa shantu kayan kida ne da ake samu daga yayan tsiro mai yado da ake kadawa a jikin sha-raba ta qafa.

Shantu yana fitowa ne ya yi yado kamar yadda kabewa take fitowa, amma su sirara ne dogaye. Ana tsinko su ne a rarake ciki ta hanyar yi musu qofofi sama da qasa, sannan a shanya, su bushe, a dinga amfani da su a matsayin kayan kida.

3.2 Nauoin Shantu

Muhimman nauoin shantu iri biyu ne kamar haka:

3.2.1 Shantun Gargajiya

Irin wannan shantu shi ne wanda aka sani tun iyaye da kakanni, wato irin wanda ake shukawa ya fito a rarake shi, a yi masa qofofi biyu. Shi wannan akwai zane-zane da ake yi masa daban-daban. Akwai irin wannan shantu har guda uku:

  • Shantu na zanen ruwan sanyi: Wannan shi ne zanen da ake yi wa shantun daga tsinko shi, wato tun yana danye, sannan a tsoma si a cikin ruwan tiri, a shanya shi ya bushe.
  • Shantu na zanen wuta: Wannan zanen sai an bari shantun ya bushe, sannan a saka abin zanen a wuta ya yi ja, sai a dauko a yi irin zanen da ake so, sai zanen ya yi baqi a jikin shantun.
  • Shantu marar zane: Irin wannan shi ne wanda da zarar an tsinko, an shanya, sai a fafe a ci gaba da amfani da shi a haka ba tare da an yi masa zane ba.

3.2.2 Shantun Zamani

Wannan shi ne shantun qarfe wanda maqeran farfaru suka kwaikwayi siffar wancan, suke yinsa da qarfe. Irin wannan shantu har kacau-kacau ake sa masa domin idan ana kada wa ya dada ba da wani sautin daban.

3.3 Masu Yin Waqoqin Shantu

A cikin rayuwa ta yau da kullum, musamman ma rayuwar datsa ga samari da yanmata, akwai wasu kade-kade da yanmata suke yi yayin da suka bushi iska, daga ciki akwai kidan shantu. Don haka mata su ne masu yin waqoqin shantu tare da yin kidan domin nishadi da raha.

Sannan wani lokaci yara qanana suna kadawa a gidan amarya. A zamanin da, kusan kowace amarya idan za a yi mata aure, da shantunta ake kai ta gidan miji domin ya debe mata kewa.

Baya haka, bayan an bubbude makarantun kwana na yanmata, an sami yanmata da suke yin waqoqin shantu a lokacin da babu karatu domin debe kewa. Don haka ko da waqoqin da suke yi sun bambanta da na gargajiya, domin a cikin nasu ana samun baqin kalmomi na Turanci.

Har wa yau, ana samun qungiyoyi da suke kidan shantu da dama. Misali qungiyar shantu ta hukumar tarihi da aladu ta Jihar Kano. Wannan qungiya ce da ta shahara wajen waqoqin shantu, wadda har qasashen waje suke fita kan harkar shantu.

3.4 TASIRIN WAQOQIN SHANTU GA HAUSAWA

Waqoqin shantu suna da matuqar tasiri ga rayuwar Hausawa ta bangarori da dama. A nan za a samu damar fito da hikimomi da fasaha da dabaru daban-daban da suke qunshe a cikin waqoqin shantu wadanda suka shafi rayuwar Hausawa kai tsaye. Daga cikin muhimmancin waqoqin akwai:

Dana Alamar 2 dake kasa don cigaba da karatunka

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