YADDA AKE GUDANAR DA BIKIN TAKUTAHA A KANO 1

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BIKIN TAKUTAHA A KASAR KANO BABI NA DAYA

Daga

Tijjani Shehu

Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya,Jami’ar Bayero, Kano.

GABATARWA


Mazauna Qasar Hausa kamar sauran qabilun duniya suna da al’adunsu da suka kebanta da su. Wasu daga cikin al’adun nan suna tattare da bukukuwa da ake aiwatarwa don dada bayyana armashinsu.

Haka kuma bukukuwan su ne qashin bayan jin dadin mazauna wadannan al’adu. Su ne gishirin jin dadin rayuwa. Al’umma kan tawaya saboda tashinsu. Don haka, bikin sallar takutaha yana daya daga cikin bukukuwan addini da ake yinsa a birnin Kano. An fara gabatar da wannan biki ne a zamanin sarkin Kano Abubakar Kada (980-1573) (Ibrahim,1982:285).

A Kano ana yin wannan biki ne domin tunowa da zagayowar ranar da aka haifi Annabi Muhammadu Salallahu alaihi wasallam, wato, 19 ga watan Rabi’ul awwal. Wannan biki ana gabatar da shi ne a cikin Unguwar Madabo da kewayenta, sai kuma dutsen Dala.

Wannan takarda ta yi qoqarin fito da matakai daban-daban ne da ake bi wajen gabatar da wannan biki har zuwa kammala shi. Sannan takardar ta fito da irin karatuttukan da ake gabatarwa, da kuma irin waqe-waqen da ake yi a barar takutaha.

MA’ANAR BIKI


A dunqule, biki yana da ma’ana daban-daban kamar yadda masana suka bayar;

Bargery (1934:105) ya nuna cewa, biki shi ne nuna murna a yayin aure ko taron radin suna.

CSNL(2006:46) sun bayyana biki da shagali na nuna farin ciki wajen aure ko suna ko nadin sarauta ko sallah ko al’adun gargajiya.

Tsanyawa (1983) ya ba da ma’anar biki da cewa, wani abu ne na musamman wanda a lokacinsa hankalin jama’a yake tattaruwa wajen nana farin cikinsu da kuma yin fatan alheri ga junansu don ganin Allah Ubangiji ya kawo su wani lokacin tare da fatan Allah Ubangiji ya maimaita masu.

Awai (1995) ya bayyana biki da cewa taro ne da jama’a kan yi a wani lokaci qayadajje ko kuma duk lokacin da buqatar bayyana farin cikin al’umma ta taso.

Bukukuwan Hausawa za a iya kallonsu ta fuskoki guda uku kamar haka:

  • Biki kafin shigowar addinin musulunci
  • Biki bayan zuwan addinin musulunci
  • Biki bayan zuwan Turaw

TAQAITACCEN TARIHIN SAMUWAR BIKI A QASAR HAUSA

Biki abu ne mai dadadden tarihi a wajen al’ummar Hausawa wanda da wuya a ce ga lokacin da aka fara shi, sai dai tarihin ya nuna cewa, Hausawa sun fara aiwatar da biki ne tun a zamanin farko, ma’ana, lokacin da Bahaushe bai hadu da wata al’umma ba. Wannan ya samo asali daga dabi’ar dan’adam ta son sararawa da bauta wa abin da ya shallake tunaninsa ko saninsa. Mutane kan bauta wa rana ko wata ko kogi ko duwatsu da sauransu. A sakamakon bauta wa wadannnan abubuwan, sukan taru don gudanar da bikin bauta.

Dangane da wannan, Hausawa suna da bukukuwa na gargajiya da sukan yi shekara-shekara tun kafin zuwan musulunci. Misali, bikin shan kabewa wanda ‘yan bori suke yi da bikin kalankuwa wanda samari da ‘yammata suke gudanarwa bayan an yi girbi, wannan ya shafi nishadi ne kawai.


Bayan zuwan musulunci, wasu bukukuwan sun qaru ga al’ummar Hausawa wadanda su ma yawanci akan yi su ne shekara-shekara. Su wadannan bukukuwa yawancinsu duk sun shafi addini ne ba harkar nishadi ba, domin addini ne ya kawo su. Duk da haka, sai da Bahaushe ya yi qoqarin cusa nishadi a cikinsu, kamar kade-kade da hawan sallah da sauransu. Ire-iren wadannan bukukuwa sun hada da bikin sallar idi da na mauludi da na saukar alqur’ani da sauransu.

Harwayau, zuwan Turawa qasar Hausa ya qara samar wa da al’ummar Hausawa sababbin nau’o’in bukukuwa wadanda a yau za a iya kallonsu a matsayin bukukuwan Hausawa. Misalin irin wadannan bukukuwa sun hada da bikin nunin amfanin gona da bikin rantsar da shugabanni da na murnar samun ‘yanci da na murnar cika wasu adadin shekaru da sauransu.

Ma’anar Takutaha


An sha kai-kawo a tsakanin masana game da ma’ana ko asalin wannan kalma ta takutaha. Wannan ce ta sa aka sami mabambantan ra’ayoyi game da wannan kalma.

Daga ciki akwai Hassan (1998:94) ya nuna cewa, bayan al’ummar Kano sun rungumi wannan rana ne ta takutaha, sai Maguzawa da suke gabatar da bukukuwansu na bauta a lokacin suka damu, wasu suka bar garin zuwa qauyuka, suna cewa, “wannan sallar taku-ta ba tamu ba ce”. Daga nan sai aka sami kalmar takutaha.

Wasu kuwa suna ganin Kalmar ta samu ne daga qaulin Shehu Usmanu danfodiyo, a lokacin da almajiransa suka yi wo bara a ranar da shekarar da aka haifi Annabi salallahu alaihi wasallam ta kewayo, amma sai ya qi daukar komai a ciki, ya ce, “ ai wannan taku ta”. Daga nan sai aka sami kalmar “takutaha”.

Wasu kuma suna ganin ma’anar Kalmar takutaha ita ce, “Allah ya maimaita mana”, wasu kuma sun ce sunan Ma’aiki ne. Haka nan, wasu suna ganin Kalmar ta samu ne daga sunan wata baiwar Allah mai suna Taku, ‘yar Malam Usman Attuman, babban waliyin nan da ya zauna a Madabo (Hassan,1998:96).

A dunqule, za a iya cewa bikin takutaha yana daya daga cikin bukukuwan addini da ake yin sa a birnin Kano, duk ranar 19 ga watan Rabi’ul awwal, wato watan da aka haifi Annabi Muhammadu salallahu alaihi wasallam.

Ku kasance damu a bikin takutaha a kasar kano kashi na BIYU

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